Foot & Ankle Conditions

Achilles Tendon Bursitis

The bursa is a sac-like structure containing a lubricating fluid that acts as a cushion to reduce friction between muscle and bones. The Achilles tendon is a large tendon that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus) and is used when you walk, run, and jump. Achilles tendon bursitis is a painful condition caused by the swelling of the bursa, a fluid-filled sac located between the heel and Achilles tendon.

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Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection on the skin of the foot. It is characterized by itchy, red, scaly rashes between the toes. It is contagious and spreads through contact to the sides of the foot, to the other foot, to your hands and other people when they are in moist areas such as swimming pools and bathrooms, from sharing shoes of an infected person or having contact with pets carrying the fungi.

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Achilles Tendon Rupture

Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump. The Achilles tendon ruptures most often in athletes participating in sports that involve running, pivoting and jumping.

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Ankle Sprains

A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments, which connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the joint or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump.

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Ankle Fracture

An ankle fracture is a common injury that involves a break in one or more bones that make up the ankle joint. Sometimes ligaments may also be damaged. Ankle fractures are most often caused by motor vehicle accidents, rolling or twisting of the ankle, tripping or falling or during sports activities.

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Ankle Instability

Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterized by the recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle. It usually results from repeated ankle sprains, and is generally noticed during movement, but can also occur during standing as well.

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Arthritis of the Foot & Ankle

Arthritis is inflammation resulting from the degeneration of cartilage surrounding joints of bones causing pain, swelling and stiffness, and restricted movement. Arthritis of the foot and ankle joint can occur due to fracture, dislocation, wear and tear associated with aging, or autoimmune disease.

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Bunion

A bunion is a bony protuberance that appears on the external surface of especially the big toe, making the toe angle toward the adjacent toe. It is an extra bone and a fluid-filled sac that grows at the base of the big toe.

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Forefoot Pain

Forefoot pain, also referred to as metatarsalgia, is pain at the ball of the foot (around the ends of the metatarsal bones). You may experience pain of varied intensity and discomfort, from numbness or tingling sensation in your toes to a sharp, aching or burning pain in the ball of your foot.

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Intoeing

Intoeing, also called “pigeon-toed”, is an abnormal condition characterized by the inward facing of the toe or feet instead of its straight alignment. You may observe this condition at an early age when your child starts walking. It is inherent in nature and may occur individually or in association with other orthopedic conditions.

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Morton’s Neuroma

Morton’s neuroma is a painful condition caused by the thickening of a nerve usually between the third and fourth toes (interdigital nerve).This thickening results from any form of compression and irritation of the nerve, which can eventually lead to permanent nerve damage. Compression can occur from repetitive activities such as running, injury, wearing high-heeled, tapering and tight shoes, or may be associated with certain conditions such as hammertoes, flatfeet, bunions or more flexible feet.

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Foot Pain

The foot is composed of different structures including bones, ligaments, tendons and muscles. Foot pain occurs from distress induced by certain factors on the various components of the foot. Pain can range from an ache to intense burning pain, numbing or tingling sensation.

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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis refers to inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that lies at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toe and forms the arch of your foot.

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Flatfoot

The arch of the foot usually develops between the age of 3 and 5 years. Flatfoot, also known as fallen arches or pesplanus, is a deformity in which the arch that runs along the sole of the foot is not formed (in children) or collapses to the ground (in adults due to various foot problems).

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Nail Fungus

Fungal infections are common in nails, and occur most often in toe nails. Termed as onychomycosis, nail fungus affects the keratin, the hard material that makes up the nail and can include the entire nail or a portion of the nail, along with the nail root, plate or bed. It gradually leads to thickening, distortion and discoloration of the nails.

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Nail Care

Nails are made of hard keratin tissue that helps protect the underlying tissue of your fingers and toes. They can reveal a lot about your overall health. Healthy nails are uniform in color and consistency, and smooth, without grooves or pits. Changes in color and growth rate can indicate various diseases.

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Nail Bed Injuries

The nail is composed of a nail plate, nail matrix and nail bed. The nail bed is the soft tissue that lies below the nail and is essential for the growth of the nail. Nail bed injuries such as crush and avulsion injuries are commonly associated with injuries to the hands or fingertips.

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Osteochondral Injuries of the Ankle

The ankle joint is an articulation of the end of the tibia and fibula (shin bones) with the talus (heel bone). Osteochondral injuries, also called osteochondritis dissecans, are injuries to the talus bone, characterized by damage to the bone as well as the cartilage covering it. Sometimes the lower end of the tibia or shin bone may also be affected.

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Heel Pain

The heel is made up of the calcaneus bone and supported by a network of muscles, tendons, ligaments and soft tissues, which together support the weight of the body and stress during movement. Heel pain is a common symptom of excessive strain placed on these structures.

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Stress Fracture of the Foot

A stress fracture is a small crack in the bone which occurs from overuse injury. It commonly develops in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. When the muscles of the foot are overworked or stressed, they are unable to absorb the stress and transfer it onto the bone, which cracks under the pressure.

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Foot Infections

Foot infections may occur after trauma to the foot or loss of tissue because of contamination from foreign material and/or bacteria or fungus. Infections can occur in healthy individuals as well as in those whose health is compromised.

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Foot Care

Feet support your body weight, help maintain proper posture and help in movement. As the feet bear the entire weight of the body and are involved in most activities, they are more prone to problems such as calluses, corns, cracks, infections and traumatic injuries.

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Toe Deformities

Toes are important to our feet as they help in walking, balance, weight-bearing and other activities. Deformities in the toes can lead to pain and problems in movement.

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Shin Splints

Shin splints or medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is pain around the tibia or shin bone due to inflammation of the tendons, muscles and bone tissue. It occurs as a result of vigorous physical activity such as with exercise or sports.

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Chronic Wound Care

An injury or small wound over the skin will normally heal within a week or two. However, sometimes due to an underlying medical condition, a small wound on the leg may take months to heal and may even worsen. Wounds that take more than six weeks to heal are considered chronic leg wounds or ulcers.

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Congenital Limb Deformities

Limb deformities can be congenital (present at birth) or develop at a later stage as a result of fracture, infection, arthritis or tumor. Congenital deformities of the lower limbs are developmental disorders that cause alterations in the shape and appearance of the legs.

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Diabetic Foot & Chronic Wounds

Diabetes is a chronic condition that is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Diabetic patients are at a high risk for developing chronic wounds, especially in the feet.

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Heel Fractures

The calcaneus or heel bone is a large bone found at the rear of the foot. A fracture is a break in a bone from trauma or various disease conditions. The types of fracture to the calcaneus depend on the severity and include stable fractures, displaced fractures, open fractures, closed fractures and comminuted fractures.

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Lisfranc (Midfoot) Fracture

The lisfranc joint or tarsometatarsal joint refers to the region in the middle of the foot. It is a junction between the tarsal bones (seven bones in the foot arch) and metatarsal bones (five long bones in the foot). Lisfranc fractures can occur due to a fall from a height or traumatic motor accidents.

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Talus Fractures

The talus is a small bone at the ankle joint that connects the heel bone and the shin bones, enabling the up and down movement of the foot. Fractures in the talus bone may occur due to a fall from great heights, motor vehicle accidents or sports injuries. Symptoms include severe ankle pain, inability to walk, swelling and tenderness.

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Toe & Forefoot Fractures

The forefoot is the front of the foot that includes the toes. Fractures occurring in this part of the foot are painful, but very often not disabling. There are 2 types of fractures namely, traumatic fracture and stress fracture. Traumatic fractures occur when there is a direct impact of your foot on a hard surface.

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Club foot & Congenital Deformities

Congenital deformities of the lower limbs are developmental disorders that are present at birth, causing alterations in the shape and appearance of the legs. Several factors such as genetics, teratogenic drugs and chemicals can cause congenital deformities.

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Ingrown Toenail

An ingrown toenail is a common and painful condition of the toe. It occurs when the sides or corner of the nail grow inwards and penetrates into the skin of the toe. Pain is often accompanied by swelling and redness. The big toe is affected most often.

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